The Government of India and the state governments in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh provide schemes and programs—such as the provision of midday meals, scholarships, uniforms, sanitary pads, adolescent-friendly health services—to improve adolescent health and well-being.

UDAYA examines the awareness of entitlements and services among adolescents and the extent to which adolescents had benefited from government programs.


Although the government provides a wide range of entitlements and services for adolescents, awareness and/or reach of these entitlements were limited.

Wide gaps between awareness of education entitlements and uptake

There was near universal awareness of education entitlements among adolescents in both Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (90–99 percent, respectively).  However, receipt of scholarships, free textbooks, and uniforms was comparatively lower.

Awareness of scholarship schemes* (%)

Received a scholarship* (%)

Awareness of provision of free textbooks* (%)

Received free textbooks* (%)

Awareness of provision of free uniforms* (%)

Received free uniforms* (%)

Delivery of health entitlements is skewed towards married adolescent girls

Very few adolescents had heard about adolescent-friendly health clinics or had received services from these clinics in the year preceding the interview.  Most older adolescent girls (83–93 percent) were aware of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in their village in both Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, while somewhat fewer younger adolescent girls (60–77 percent) and younger and older boys had heard about them (55–80 percent).

More married adolescent girls, in comparison to any other category of adolescents, had interacted with village-level frontline workers, such as ASHAs and Anganwadi Workers (AWWs).

Although more adolescents in Bihar had heard of the Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) program than those in Uttar Pradesh, less than 10 percent of adolescents in either state had received supplements.

Awareness of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation (WIFS) scheme (%)

Received iron and folic acid tablets under WIFS
in the last year (%)

Awareness of ASHAs (%)

Interacted with an ASHA in the last year (%)

Awareness of Anganwadi Workers (AWW) (%)

Interacted with an AWW in the last year (%)

Skill development

Awareness of the state Skill Development Missions was low. Between 15 to 30 percent of adolescents had heard of government training programs and very few—8 percent or fewer—were aware of a centre that offered vocational skills training under the Skill Development Mission.

Six to 8 percent had ever attended a formal vocational training programme.

Awareness of Skill Development Mission
in the state (%)

Awareness of vocational training centres that offer training under Skill Development Mission (%)